Additional Resources

PBIS Resources for Equity
From the National Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.

Components of Effective Intervention to Prevent and Reduce Disproportionality

The existing research is clear that no single strategy will be sufficient to produce substantive and sustainable change. Multiple components may be needed, but not all components may be necessary in all schools.

Below is a 5-point multicomponent approach from Recommendations for Addressing Discipline Disproportionality in Education by Kent McIntosh, Erik J. Girvan, Robert H. Horner, Keith Smolkowski, & George Sugai to reduce disproportionality in schools:

  1. Use Effective Instruction to Reduce the Achievement Gap
    Examples of Engaging Instruction to Increase Equity in Education
    by Erin A. Chaparro, Rhonda N. T. Nese, & Kent McIntosh

  2. Implement School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions And Supports (SWPBIS) to Build a Foundation of Prevention

    If your school team has not yet participated in PBIS cohort training, more information to get started is here:
    If you are a sustaining PBIS school, you may consider the following field guide, which includes a Tiered Fidelity Inventory (TFI) Cultural Responsiveness Companion for embedding components of cultural responsiveness into the critical features of SWPBIS:
    PBIS Cultural Responsiveness Field Guide: Resources for Trainers and Coaches
    by Milaney Leverson, Kent Smith, Kent McIntosh, Jennifer Rose, & Sarah Pinkelman

  3. Collect, Use, and Report Disaggregated Student Discipline Data
    Using Discipline Data within SWPBIS to Identify and Address Disproportionality: A Guide for School Teams
    by Kent McIntosh, Aaron Barnes, Bert Eliason, & Kelsey Morris

  4. Develop Policies with Accountability for Disciplinary Equity
    Key Elements of Policies to Address Discipline Disproportionality: A Guide for District and School Teams
    by Ambra Green, Rhonda Nese, Kent McIntosh, Vicki Nishioka, Bert Eliason, & Alondra Canizal Delabra

  5. Teach Neutralizing Routines for Vulnerable Decision Points
    It may be effective to provide training to school personnel to identify situations in which their decisions may be vulnerable to bias (e.g., fatigue, subjective behavior, unfamiliar student). In these situations, using a self-review routine just prior to a making a discipline decision may neutralize the effects of implicit bias, especially in situations that are chaotic, ambiguous, or seem to demand snap judgments (Lai et al., 2013). Research in other fields (Mendoza, Gollwitzer, & Amodio, 2010) suggests that short "if-then" statements are most effective (e.g., "If a student is disrespectful, handle it after class").

    “Identifying Vulnerable Decision Points” worksheet:

    New information, practice guides and other resources are updated here:


McIntosh, K., Girvan, E. J., Horner, R. H., Smolkowski, K., & Sugai, G. (2014). Recommendations for addressing discipline disproportionality in education. OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. (Accessed 10/3/2017 at